Inflammatory Genes in Epicardial Fat Contiguous With Coronary Atherosclerosis in the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes: Changes associated with pioglitazone

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OBJECTIVETo determine changes in gene expression in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) associated with coronary atherosclerosis (CAD) and effects of pioglitazone therapy.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSGenes were quantified by RT-PCR in EAT and thoracic subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) obtained during surgery in CAD patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) or type 2 diabetes and control subjects with minimal or no CAD and no MS or type 2 diabetes.RESULTSIncreased expression of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-10, a trend for higher IL-1β, and no change in peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) was found in EAT from MS or type 2 diabetes. Only PPARγ mRNA was reduced in SAT. Pioglitazone therapy in type 2 diabetes was associated with decreased expression of IL-1β, IL-1Ra, and IL-10 in EAT; decreased IL-10 in SAT; and increased PPARγ in SAT.CONCLUSIONSIn MS and type 2 diabetes with CAD, proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes were differentially increased in EAT and selectively reduced in association with pioglitazone treatment.

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