Body Composition Is Normal in Term Infants Born to Mothers With Well-Controlled Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

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OBJECTIVEThis study aims to describe body composition in term infants of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared with infants of mothers with normal glucose tolerance (NGT).RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSThis cross-sectional study included 599 term babies born at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Neonatal body fat percentage (BF%) was measured within 48 h of birth using air-displacement plethysmography. Glycemic control data were based on third-trimester HbA1c levels and self-monitoring blood glucose levels. Associations between GDM status and BF% were investigated using linear regression adjusted for relevant maternal and neonatal variables.RESULTSOf 599 babies, 67 (11%) were born to mothers with GDM. Mean ± SD neonatal BF% was 7.9 ± 4.5% in infants with GDM and 9.3 ± 4.3% in infants with NGT, and this difference was not statistically significant after adjustment. Good glycemic control was achieved in 90% of mothers with GDM.CONCLUSIONSIn this study, neonatal BF% did not differ by maternal GDM status, and this may be attributed to good maternal glycemic control.

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