Smoking Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults Contrasting With Increased Risk in Overweight Men With Type 2 Diabetes: A 22-year follow-up of the HUNT study


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Abstract

OBJECTIVETo investigate the association between smoking habits and risk of autoimmune diabetes in adults and of type 2 diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWe used data from the three surveys of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, spanning 1984–2008 and including a cohort of 90,819 Norwegian men (48%) and women (52%) aged ≥20 years. Incident cases of diabetes were identified by questionnaire and classified as type 2 diabetes (n = 1,860) and autoimmune diabetes (n = 140) based on antibodies to glutamic decarboxylase (GADA) and age at onset of diabetes. Hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for confounders were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression models.RESULTSThe risk of autoimmune diabetes was reduced by 48% (HR 0.52 [95% CI 0.30–0.89]) in current smokers and 58% in heavy smokers (0.42 [0.18–0.98]). The reduced risk was positively associated with number of pack-years. Heavy smoking was associated with lower levels of GADA (P = 0.001) and higher levels of C-peptide (964 vs. 886 pmol/L; P = 0.03). In contrast, smoking was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, restricted to overweight men (1.33 [1.10–1.61]). Attributable proportion due to an interaction between overweight and heavy smoking was estimated to 0.40 (95% CI 0.23–0.57).CONCLUSIONSIn this epidemiological study, smoking is associated with a reduced risk of autoimmune diabetes, possibly linked to an inhibitory effect on the autoimmune process. An increased risk of type 2 diabetes was restricted to overweight men.

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