Five-Year Metabolic, Functional, and Safety Results of Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Transplanted With Allogenic Islets Within the Swiss-French GRAGIL Network

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OBJECTIVETo describe the 5-year outcomes of islet transplantation within the Swiss-French GRAGIL Network.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSRetrospective analysis of all subjects enrolled in the GRAGIL-1c and GRAGIL-2 islet transplantation trials. Parameters related to metabolic control, graft function, and safety outcomes were studied.RESULTSForty-four patients received islet transplantation (islet transplantation alone [ITA] 24 patients [54.5%], islet after kidney [IAK] transplantation 20 patients [45.5%]) between September 2003 and April 2010. Recipients received a total islet mass of 9,715.75 ± 3,444.40 IEQ/kg. Thirty-four patients completed a 5-year follow-up, and 10 patients completed a 4-year follow-up. At 1, 4, and 5 years after islet transplantation, respectively, 83%, 67%, and 58% of the ITA recipients and 80%, 70%, and 60% of the IAK transplant recipients reached HbA1c under 7% (53 mmol/mol) and were free of severe hypoglycemia, while none of the ITA recipients and only 10% of the IAK transplant recipients met this composite criterion at the preinfusion stage. Thirty-three of 44 patients (75%) experienced insulin independence during the entire follow-up period, with a median duration of insulin independence of 19.25 months (interquartile range 2–58). Twenty-nine of 44 recipients (66%) exhibited at least one adverse event; 18 of 55 adverse events (33%) were possibly related to immunosuppression; and complications related to the islet infusion (n = 84) occurred in 10 recipients (11.9%).CONCLUSIONSIn a large cohort with a 5-year follow-up and in a multicenter network setting, islet transplantation was safe and efficient in restoring good and lasting glycemic control and preventing severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes.

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