Insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive and normotensive native Ghanaians


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Abstract

Aims/HypothesisThe objective of this study was to examine the relationships among insulin and insulin sensitivity and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in native Ghanaians with and without hypertension.MethodsWe measured the anthropometric parameters, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting serum triglycerides, cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting and stimulated glucose, insulin and C-peptide of 200 Ghanaian subjects, who were between 25 to 74 years of age, and residing in the Accra Metropolitan area. Serum glucose, C-peptide and insulin concentrations were measured at baseline (fasting) and also 2 h after 75 gm oral glucose drink. Homeostasis model assessment was used to measure insulin resistance. Hypertension was defined as a blood pressure higher than 140/90 mmHg.ResultsThere were 53 subjects with hypertension (HBP) and 147 subjects with normal blood pressure (NBP). The mean BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip circumference ratio for HBP and NBP subjects were 27.4±0.8, 24.8±0.4 kg/m2; 89.8±11.7, 81.1±0.9 cm; and 0.87±0.08, 0.82±0.08 respectively, (p<0.05). The fasting and 2-h plasma glucose concentrations in HBP and NBP subjects were 5.5±0.2, 7.2±0.3 mmol/l and 5.2±01, 6.8±0.2 mmol/l respectively (p>0.05). The corresponding fasting and 2-h insulin concentrations were 10.0±0.7, 8.0±0.4 uU/ml and 47.3±3.7, 37.3±2.5 uU/ml respectively (p<0.05). The insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) in the HBP and the NBP groups were 2.49±0.2 and 1.95±0.13 (p<0.05). The two groups had similar fasting and stimulated C-peptide, lipids and HDL concentrations. Correlations were found between blood pressure and the concentrations of lipids, HDL, fasting and stimulated insulin and C-peptide, and between fasting insulin and HOMA-IR with lipids and HDL concentrations. On multiple regression analysis, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR did not influence blood pressure variations significantly.Conclusions/interpretationWe found clustering of hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance and truncal obesity in hypertensive Ghanaian subjects but dissociation between insulin resistance, hypertension and atherogenic lipid and lipoprotein profile.

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