The purpose of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of oncotic colpocytology stained with Harris-Shorr in the identification of the cervicovaginal microflora and infectious agents. Results of microbiologic evaluation carried out in colpocytology exams, bacterioscopy (Gram), and direct exams of 2,017 women aged from 13 to 80 years were compared. Of these, 83.1% agreed between cytology and Gram, 3.6% partially agreed, and 12.8% disagreed. The predominant microflora was of lactobacilli (63.3%), followed by mixed flora (32.1%). The results of sensitivity to lactobacilli were 96.1% and to mixed flora 88.0%; the specificity values were 91.2 and 92.0%, respectively. Colpocytology detected all the instances of trichomoniasis observed at direct exam (0.6%). The most frequent infectious agents were of candidiasis (14.8%, sensitivity 80.3%) and bacterial vaginosis (11.9%, sensitivity 68.1%). Thus, Harris-Shorr stained cytology was shown to be an excellent diagnostic method for T. vaginalis, lactobacilli, mixed flora, and candidiasis.