Polyomavirus Infection of the Urinary Tract Presenting as Hemorrhagic Cystitis in an Immunocompetent Five-Year-Old Boy

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Human polyomavirus infection, which can be detected morphologically on Pap-stained routine urine cytology specimens, is most commonly encountered in immunocompromised patients and is a well-described complication of renal transplantation. We present a case of an immunocompetent 5-year-old boy with a sudden onset of dysuria and hematuria due to a self-limited polyomavirus urinary tract infection detected on routine urine cytology and confirmed with real-time PCR. Although rare cases of nonhemorrhagic cystitis have been reported, to the best of our knowledge this is the first case of hemorrhagic cystitis occurring in this setting.

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