Malignant small round cell tumors represent a diagnostic challenge for cytologists and pathologists. This case series describes four cases of unusual metastasis of small round cell tumors subtypes into body cavities generating effusions in which fluid cytological examination suggested the neuroendocrine origin of the tumors. Tumor diagnosis (Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor and desmoplastic small round cell tumors) were unknown at the cytological evaluation. We can highlight the importance of the accurate analyses of body fluids, both for early diagnosis of metastatic disease, and for the diagnosis of primary tumor when serous effusion is the first manifestation of the neoplasia. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013;41:348–353. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.