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Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) or type 2 lepra reaction is an inflammatory reaction, which may occur in the course of hanseniasis, may compel the patient to seek medical attention and may result in nerve function impairment and subsequent disability. Thus, recognition and timely management of these patients is critical in order to avoid permanent disability. Fine-needle aspiration cytology is simple and effective tool that aids in the correct diagnosis and management of ENL. Herein, we present two cases of ENL, one with typical and another with atypical presentation. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013;41:366–368. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.