Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium (PSCCE) is a rare entity, with fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature. We report two cases of PSCCE and review the literature regarding associated markers and treatment outcomes. Many different markers have been tested for association with PSCCE, with mixed results. Thus, it is likely that several etiologic factors are responsible for the development of PSCCE. Further, due to the rarity of the condition, the optimal postoperative management of patients with PSCCE remains to be defined. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2013;41:817–820. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.