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This pilot project analyzed the tumor suppressor genes p53 and Rb in 13 cases of aggressive fibromatoses and six cases of palmar fibromatoses (Dupuytren contracture). Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, polymerase chain reaction followed by single-strand confirmation polymorphism analysis, and Southern blot to detect gene rearrangements were used. No abnormalities were detected in p53. The aggressive fibromatoses demonstrated a lack of Rb immunohistochemical staining and decreased mRNA for Rb. No structural mutation in the coding sequence of the Rb gene was detected. The decreased level of Rb gene expression, despite a normal coding sequence, may indicate increased proliferation and may suggest potential treatment schemes.