The effect of the availability of inhaled insulin on glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes failing on oral therapy: the evaluation of Exubera® as a therapeutic option on insulin initiation and improvement in glycaemic control in clinical practice (EXPERIENCE) trial

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To examine the impact of inhaled human insulin (Exubera®, EXU) on patient or physician willingness to adopt insulin after oral glucose-lowering agent failure.


During a randomized controlled trial in primary, secondary and tertiary care in Europe and North America, 739 patients using ≥ 2 oral glucose-lowering agents with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 8.0% were assigned to two treatment groups: Group 1 (standard care with the option of EXU) or Group 2 (standard care only). Standard care included adjusting oral therapy (optimizing current regimen or adding/omitting agents) and/or initiating subcutaneous (s.c.) insulin. The primary endpoint was difference in HbA1c between randomized groups at 26 weeks. Secondary outcomes included differences in the rate of uptake of insulin therapy, proportion achieving satisfactory glycaemic control, treatment satisfaction and safety outcomes.


At baseline, insulin was initiated by more [odds ratio 6.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2 to 8.8; P < 0.0001] patients in Group 1 (86.2%; 76.7% EXU plus 9.5% s.c.) than Group 2 (50.7%; s.c. insulin only). At 26 weeks, mean (SD) changes in HbA1c from baseline were –2.0% (1.2%) and –1.7% (1.3%) in Groups 1 and 2, respectively, a difference of –0.2% (95% CI: –0.1% to –0.4%; P = 0.004). In Group 1, 45% of patients achieved an HbA1c≤ 7.0% by 26 weeks compared with 39% in Group 2 (P = 0.02).


The availability of EXU may increase initiation of insulin, thereby contributing to improved overall glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on two or more oral glucose-lowering agents.

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