Psychological outcomes of evening and night closed-loop insulin delivery under free living conditions in people with Type 1 diabetes: a 2-month randomized crossover trial: J. Kropff et al.

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To assess the impact on fear of hypoglycaemia and treatment satisfaction with an artificial pancreas system used for 2 consecutive months, as well as participant acceptance of the artificial pancreas system.


In a randomized crossover trial patient-related outcomes associated with an evening-and-night artificial pancreas and sensor-augmented pump therapy were compared. Both intervention periods lasted 8 weeks. The artificial pancreas acceptance questionnaire (range 0–90, higher scores better), Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey II (range 0–72, higher scores worse) and Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (range 0–36, higher scores better) were completed by 32 participants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted after study completion in a subset of six participants. Outcomes were compared using a repeated-measures anova model or paired t-test when appropriate.


The total artificial pancreas acceptance questionnaire score at the end of the artificial pancreas period was 69.1 (sd 14.7; 95% CI 63.5, 74.7), indicating a positive attitude towards the artificial pancreas. No significant differences were found among the scores at baseline, end of sensor-augmented pump therapy period or end of the artificial pancreas period with regard to fear of hypoglycaemia [28.2 (sd 17.5), 23.5 (sd 16.6) and 23.5 (sd 16.7), respectively; P = 0.099] or diabetes treatment satisfaction [29.0 (sd 3.9), 28.2 (sd 5.2) and 28.0 (sd 7.1), respectively; P = 0.43]. Themes frequently mentioned in the interviews were ‘positive effects at work’, ‘improved blood glucose’, ‘fewer worries about blood glucose’, but also ‘frequent alarms’, ‘technological issues’ and ‘demand for an all-in-one device’.


The psychological outcomes of artificial pancreas and sensor-augmented pump therapy were similar. Current artificial pancreas technology is promising but user concerns should be taken into account to ensure utility of these systems.

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