Adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) may have reduced quality of life (QOL) when compared with their peers. This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of diabetes self-management education (DSME) interventions with a skills development component on the QOL of adolescents with T1DM.Methods
Six databases were systematically searched for studies on the QOL outcomes of DSME interventions for adolescents with T1DM. Fourteen studies published between 1994 and 2014 met the inclusion criteria.Results
Of the 14 studies, only 4 had significant QOL outcomes for the intervention participants. Successful DSME interventions had indirect behavioral skills foci or a combination of indirect and direct behavioral skills foci and a duration ≥2 months.Conclusion
This review provides evidence that educational interventions with an indirect behavioral skills development that facilitates diabetes management may improve QOL among adolescents with T1DM. Structured interventions targeting adolescents' QOL are needed to determine which are most effective in improving QOL. Adolescents with T1DM should be routinely screened and monitored for low QOL and referred to QOL-improving interventions.