Culturally Targeted Strategies for Diabetes Prevention in Minority Population: A Systematic Review and Framework

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to (a) assess the effectiveness of culturally tailored diabetes prevention interventions in minority populations and (b) develop a novel framework to characterize 4 key domains of culturally tailored interventions. Prevention strategies specifically tailored to the culture of ethnic minority patients may help reduce the incidence of diabetes.

Methods

We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL for English-language, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-experimental (QE) trials testing culturally tailored interventions to prevent diabetes in minority populations. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Inductive thematic analysis was used to develop a framework with 4 domains (FiLLM: Facilitating [ie, delivering] Interventions Through Language, Location, and Message). The framework was used to assess the overall effectiveness of culturally tailored interventions.

Results

Thirty-four trials met eligibility criteria. Twelve studies were RCTs, and 22 were QE trials. Twenty-five out of 34 studies (74%) that used cultural tailoring demonstrated significantly improved A1C, fasting glucose, and/or weight loss. Of the 25 successful interventions, 21 (84%) incorporated at least 3 culturally targeted domains. Seven studies used all 4 domains and were all successful. The least utilized domain was delivery (4/34) of the intervention’s key educational message.

Conclusions

Culturally tailoring interventions across the 4 domains of facilitators, language, location, and messaging can be effective in improving risk factors for progression to diabetes among ethnic minority groups. Future studies should evaluate how specific tailoring approaches work compared to usual care as well as comparative effectiveness of each tailoring domain.

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