Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is the 6th most commonly occurring cancer worldwide. A relationship between HLA A1 and B40 and esophageal cancer was described in patients examined in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of HLA class 1 and esophageal carcinoma in the northwestern region of Iran. Using specific monoclonal antibodies, different human leukocyte antigens (HLA) were quantified in 100 patients suffering esophageal carcinoma in Tabriz, a major city located in the Northwestern region of Iran. These data were compared to those of 100 healthy matched individuals as a control group from the same region. HLA B14 and A24 were increased and showed statistically significant correlation in squamous cell carcinoma. These findings may also indicate the association between genetic factors and esophageal carcinoma. Further studies are suggested for detecting correlation of HLA and esophageal carcinoma in other regions.