Trimodality therapy with neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery significantly improves the survival of locally advanced (clinical stage IIA–III) esophageal cancer patients compared to treatment with surgery alone. This has resulted in an increased use of neoadjuvant therapy in recent years, yet little is known regarding how this increase has impacted the utilization of surgery in the treatment of locally advanced disease. Although previous reports of experimental protocols suggest that 90–95% of patients complete trimodality therapy including a surgical resection, trimodality therapy completion among adenocarcinoma patients eligible for curative resection has not been evaluated in a nonprotocol setting. We sought to (i) assess the completion of trimodality therapy among locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma patients; (ii) characterize the reasons for avoiding surgery; and (iii) identify factors associated with failure to complete trimodality therapy. We identified 296 patients with locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma eligible for trimodality therapy at our institution. All patients were evaluated in a multidisciplinary setting and considered eligible for curative resection after initial staging and physiologic assessment. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with failure to complete trimodality therapy. Of 296 trimodality-eligible patients, 33% (97/296) did not complete trimodality therapy. Reasons for not undergoing surgery included patient choice (27.8%, 27/97), distant progression of disease during chemoradiation (23.7%, 23/97), and physician preference for surveillance (23.7%, 23/97). In addition, 17.5% (17/97) of patients had physical deterioration in performance status, and treatment-related deaths occurred in 7.2% (7/97) prior to surgery. In the total study population (n= 296), multivariable logistic regression identified older age (≥70 years: odds ratio [OR] = 6.611, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.900–15.071), pretreatment standard uptake value (6.8–10.1: OR = 2.393, 95% CI: 1.050–5.455; ≥15.8: OR = 3.623, 95% CI: 1.604–8.186), and a radiation dose of 50.4 Gy (OR = 5.312, 95% CI: 2.365–11.929) as being significantly associated with failure to complete trimodality therapy. Among the subgroup of patients that successfully completed chemoradiation (n= 266), older patients (≥70 years: OR = 9.606, 95% CI: 3.637–25.372), those with a comorbidity score of 2 or higher (OR = 4.059, 95% CI: 1.257–13.103), and those that received a radiation dose of 50.4 Gy (OR = 4.878, 95% CI: 1.974–12.054) were at a significantly higher risk of not completing trimodality therapy. Trimodality therapy completion among patients with locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma in a nonprotocol setting is considerably lower than what has previously been reported in clinical trials. Our findings suggest that a selective approach to surgery is commonly utilized in clinical practice. Trimodality-eligible patients that are older and have a higher comorbidity score are at risk for not completing trimodality therapy.