Endoscopic treatment is applied to a relatively large number of biliary and pancreatic duct strictures, and is a practical matter. It is essential to select the most appropriate treatment for each lesion. For instance, when treating malignant biliary stricture, accurate diagnosis of whether surgical treatment is required or not is vital; and in choosing a stent for an inoperable case, location of the stricture, with or without anticancer treatment, prognosis, and management of possible post-stenting re-stricture must be taken into consideration. For benign strictures, not only short-term results in mobility and motality, but also decades of long-term results must be cautiously questioned. Bearing these in mind, we need to accumulate the worldwide data of the treatments and establish a proper treatment guideline.