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In some patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP), strictures are observed in the intrapancreatic bile ducts due to fibrosis and inflammation in the pancreas. Normally, even when biliary strictures exist, obstructive jaundice is rarely observed. It seemed that obstructive jaundice was brought about by temporary pancreatitis due to immoderate alcohol ingestion, followed by the aggravation of the intrapancreatic biliary stricture. When immoderate alcohol ingestion is incriminated for the pancreatic disorder, the patient should be strictly instructed to abstain from alcohol, but failure to observe this instruction seems to render endoscopic biliary stenting ineffective. When CP is complicated with pancreatolithiasis, stone fragmentation using extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is effective, and combination with endoscopic lithotomy makes it possible to remove pancreatic stones in the main pancreatic duct (MPD). To treat the beside dilating stricture of the MPD, balloon dilation and pancreatic duct stenting are performed. We obtained good results with 10 Fr pancreatic duct stents, but biliary strictures are better treated with a combination of these methods. When 10 Fr or larger straight biliary stents are used, they may be dislodged or stray if the bile duct is sharply curved. To prevent this accident we have used 10 Fr double layer stents and obtained good results. In patients with benign biliary strictures, stents are temporarily placed and should be removable. Some cases have been reported where Wallstent gave good results in a short period, but the stents were occluded due to hyperplastic proliferation of the biliary epithelium. Metal stents are not considered desirable for benign biliary strictures. Our results seem to support the assumption that benign biliary strictures are improved with 10 Fr or larger biliary stents while exercizing care to keep the patient abstinent from alcohol and performing ESWL and endoscopic treatment for CP.

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