Towards safer and appropriate application of endoscopic submucosal dissection for T1 colorectal carcinoma as total excisional biopsy: Future perspectives

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According to the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum Guidelines 2014 for the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer, cases with T1 colorectal carcinoma should be considered for additional colectomy with lymph node dissection when histologically complete en bloc resection is endoscopically carried out and when one of the four risk factors listed below is present. These four risk factors are: (i) submucosal (SM) invasion depth ≥1000 μm; (ii) positive vascular invasion; (iii) poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, signet ring cell carcinoma, or mucinous carcinoma; and (iv) grade 2/3 budding at the deepest part of SM invasion. However, the probability of lymph node metastasis is extremely low if none of these risk factors are present, with the exception of SM invasion depth ≥1000 μm. Consequently, it is assumed that there will be an increasing number of cases where no additional surgery is done, or cases of moderate invasive carcinoma in which endoscopic treatment is carried out to achieve an excisional biopsy, for which complete resection is applicable. In these cases, the preoperative diagnosis, resection techniques such as endoscopic submucosal dissection, features of resected specimens, and the accuracy of pathological diagnosis are all extremely important.

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