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This study aims to measure the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) from chronic severe hepatitis B (CSHB), to assess the contribution of TLRs in CSHB.Peripheral blood was collected from 40 CSHB patients, 30 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, and 30 healthy individuals who served as healthy controls (HCs). Purified monocytes were isolated by a combination of Histopaque-1.077 and CD14 Microbeads. MoDCs were induced with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-4 for 6 days from CD14+ monocytes. The expression of TLRs in MoDC was measured using real-time PCR and flow cytometry.The expressions of TLR-1, -2, -7 were significantly higher in MoDC of CSHB than that of HCs, of which the level of TLR-3 was decreased. Particularly in CSHB patients, the TLR-3 expression was further decreased compared to CHB patients. In non-survival CSHB patients, TLR-3 level was significantly decreased, while TLR-2 expression was dramatically increased. Linear correlation analysis demonstrated significant correlations between TLR-3 level and disease severity markers (total bilirubin, prothrombin activity, creatinine, white blood cell count, and maximum volume of ascitic fluid) in individual CSHB patients.TLR-2 and TLR-3 may be involved in the pathogenesis of CSHB, and TLR-3 may influence the prognosis of CSHB.