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To preserve pancreatic function, segmental pancreatectomy has been proposed for benign or low-malignancy tumors in the pancreatic body. Indications for the procedure, however, are still controversial.In this study, we investigated the advantages and disadvantages of segmental pancreatectomy compared with distal pancreatectomy and subsequently determined indications for segmental pancreatectomy.The distal pancreatectomy patients had shorter operation times, lower incidence of operative complications, and shorter hospital stays compared to segmental pancreatectomy patients. Endocrine function in distal pancreatectomy patients deteriorated compared to that of segmental pancreatectomy patients. The postoperative 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test showed a diabetic pattern in 3 of 7 distal pancreatectomy patients, whereas none of the segmental pancreatectomy patients became diabetic after surgery. The relation between the length of the removed pancreas and plasma glucose at 2 h after the 75-gram glucose intake showed a significant correlation.According to our results, if the length of removed pancreas is longer than 12 cm, the patients will have a risk of acquiring diabetes. In those cases, the segmental pancreatectomy should be considered.