Endoscopic Ultrasonography for Tumor Node Staging and Vascular Invasion in Pancreatic Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

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The accurate staging of pancreatic cancer (PanCa) is crucial in the development of a stage-specific treatment plan for PanCa patients. We aimed to perform a meta-analysis of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the tumor node (TN) staging and evaluation of vascular invasion in PanCa.


A meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy parameters was performed to evaluate the EUS-based TN staging, and vascular invasion by PanCa was compared to the results of intraoperative staging or to the histopathology of resected specimens.


Twenty studies with 726 PanCa cases were identified from 281 articles. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were 0.72, 0.90, 6.27, 0.28, and 24.69, respectively, for T1-2 staging and 0.90, 0.72, 3.58, 0.16, and 24.69, respectively, for T3-4 staging. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, and DOR were 0.62, 0.74, 2.54, 0.51, and 6.67, respectively, for N staging (positive vs. negative) and 0.87, 0.92, 7.16, 0.20, and 56.19, respectively, for vascular invasion. The area under the curve was 0.90, 0.90, 0.79, and 0.94 for T1-2 staging, T3-4 staging, N staging, and vascular invasion, respectively.


EUS is a reliable and accurate diagnostic tool for the TN staging and evaluation of vascular invasion in PanCa. The nodal staging accuracy using EUS is less satisfactory.

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