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Background: We suspected that fatty pancreas, accompanied with metabolic syndrome, may be associated with the incidence of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) after radial gastrectomy. Methods: Between February 2012 and March 2014, we reviewed consecutive 79 gastric cancer patients who underwent radical gastrectomy. To quantify the degree of fatty infiltration to pancreas by preoperative contrast-enhanced CT, we measured ratios and differences between pancreatic and splenic attenuation values (P/S and P-S, respectively). The optimal cut-off values of P/S and P-S for predicting POPF were determined using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Risk factors for POPF of International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula grade B or higher were examined using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: POPF occurred in 6 patients (7.6%). ROC curve analyses revealed that the most optimal predictive values of P/S and P-S were 0.74 and -28.8, respectively. Univariate analysis demonstrated that high visceral fat area (p = 0.037), low P/S (p = 0.013), and low P-S (p = 0.006) were significant risk factors of POPF. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that low P/S (OR 10.2 [p = 0.046]) and low P-S (OR 13.2 [p = 0.023]) were significant risk factors of POPF. Conclusion: Fatty pancreas is a risk factor of POPF after radical gastrectomy.