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Background/Aims: Several initiatives have started to transfer colorectal cancer follow-up (FU) from secondary to primary care. For this purpose, it is important to assess when and how recurrences of rectal carcinoma are detected after treatment with curative intent. Methods: Retrospective multicentre cohort study. Patients participating in an FU programme after curative intended treatment for rectal cancer stages I-III between 2007 and 2014. Results: Of the 378 patients, 64 (17%) developed recurrent disease (RD). Most were detected during scheduled FU consultations (n = 55) by (a combination of) radiological examinations and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, and were asymptomatic (n = 53); outside scheduled FU consultations, RD was detected during the treatment of postoperative complications or ostomy reversal (n = 5), or due to symptoms (n = 4). Most frequent sites of recurrence were liver (50%), lung (44%), multiple (22%) or locoregional (16%). Treatment of RD with curative intent was performed more frequently when detected during scheduled FU (60 vs. 22%). The only predictive factor for developing RD was stage III disease on initial presentation. Conclusions: The majority of rectal cancer patients are diagnosed with RD at an asymptomatic stage during scheduled FU consultations. Only a few patients presented with RD outside the FU programme. Arguably, general practitioners could order these same diagnostic tests during FU.