Preoperative Nutritional Optimization for Crohn’s Disease Patients Can Improve Surgical Outcome

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Abstract

Background: Preoperative preparation of patients with Crohn’s disease is challenging and there are no specific guidelines regarding nutritional support. The aim of this study was to assess whether preoperative nutritional support influenced the postoperative outcome. Methods: A retrospective, cohort study including all Crohn’s disease patients who underwent abdominal surgery between 2008 and 2014 was conducted. Patients’ characteristics and clinical and surgical data were recorded and analyzed. Results: Eighty-seven patients were included in the study. Thirty-seven patients (42.5%) received preoperative nutritional support (mean albumin level 3.14 vs. 3.5 mg/dL in the non-optimized group; p < 0.02) to optimize their nutritional status prior to surgery. Preoperative albumin level, after adequate nutritional preparation, was similar between the 2 groups. The 2 groups differ neither in demographic and surgical data, overall post-op complication (p = 0.85), Clavien-Dindo score (p = 0.42), and length of stay (p = 0.1). Readmission rate was higher in the non-optimized group (p = 0.047). Conclusion: Nutritional support can minimize postoperative complications in patients with low albumin levels. Nutritional status should be optimized in order to avoid hazardous complications.

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