Resistance to antifungals is not yet as serious a problem as resistance to antibacterials, but it is on the rise and expected to become more critical unless present trends are reversed.
Several companies have used new lipid formulations to deliver higher doses of amphotericin B to infection sites while avoiding the kidneys, resulting in higher efficacy and lower nephrotoxicity.
New triazoles with increased efficacy aim to inhibit ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, increasing membrane permeability and eventually leading to cell death.
Researchers have developed new strategies to target previously unknown or unexploited mechanisms of antibiotic action. Combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening and fungal genomics are all being used to identify new fungal targets that may be susceptible to antifungal agents.