To compare the effects of miglitol [an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (AGI) absorbed in the intestine] and voglibose (an AGI not absorbed) on plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) levels, 26 and 24 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to receive miglitol or voglibose, respectively. After 12-week administration of both drugs, during 2-h meal tolerance test, plasma glucose, serum insulin and total GIP were significantly decreased and active GLP-1 was significantly increased. Miglitol group showed a significantly lower total GIP level than voglibose group. Miglitol, but not voglibose, significantly reduced body weight (BW). In all participants, the relative change in BW was positively correlated with that of insulin significantly and of GIP with a weak tendency, but not of GLP-1. In conclusion, both drugs can enhance postprandial GLP-1 responses and reduce GIP responses. The significant BW reduction by miglitol might be attributable to its strong GIP-reducing efficacy.