Composite endpoints in trials of type-2 diabetes

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Abstract

Composite endpoints (CEPs) are being used more frequently as outcomes for trials of drugs in type-2 diabetes. We reviewed the literature to determine how CEPs have been used to date in trials of drugs for type-2 diabetes. A systematic search was undertaken on Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases and Clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials of currently marketed agents including SGLT-2 inhibitors (dapagliflozin), GLP-1 agonists (exenatide, liraglutide) and DPP-4 inhibitors (linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin and vildagliptin). CEPs used were identified as well as numbers and percentages of patients achieving each. Thirty-six studies were identified that reported results on ≥1 CEP; 15 different CEPs were reported (7 with 2 components, 8 with 3 components). All CEPs addressed goals recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA). All included HbA1c<7%; other endpoints measured weight, blood pressure and hypoglycaemic events. Results were obtained for CEPs from 6 months to 2 years. Rates of achieving CEPs decreased with increasing numbers of components and outcomes assessed. CEPs are becoming used as indicators of clinical outcomes in type-2 diabetes trials, but are still not common. More research is required to identify optimal CEPs. Standardization of outcomes and their reporting is needed.

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