To determine the effects of empagliflozin on blood pressure (BP) and markers of arterial stiffness and vascular resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Methods:
We conducted a post hoc analysis of data from a phase III trial in patients with T2DM and hypertension receiving 12 weeks' empagliflozin and four phase III trials in patients with T2DM receiving 24 weeks' empagliflozin (cohort 1, n = 823; cohort 2, n = 2477). BP was measured using 24-h BP monitoring (cohort 1) or seated office measurements (cohort 2).Results:
Empagliflozin reduced systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP in both cohorts (p < 0.001 vs placebo), without increasing heart rate. Empagliflozin reduced pulse pressure (PP; adjusted mean difference vs placebo cohort 1: −2.3 mmHg; cohort 2: −2.3 mmHg), mean arterial pressure (MAP; cohort 1, −2.3 mmHg; cohort 2, −2.1 mmHg) and double product (cohort 1, −385 mmHg × bpm; cohort 2, −369 mmHg × bpm) all p < 0.001 vs placebo. There was a trend towards a reduction in the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) with empagliflozin in cohort 1 (p = 0.059 vs placebo). AASI was not measured in cohort 2. Subgroup analyses showed that there were greater reductions in PP with increasing baseline SBP in cohort 1 (p = 0.092). In cohort 2, greater reductions in MAP were achieved in patients with higher baseline SBP (p = 0.027) and greater reductions in PP were observed in older patients (p = 0.011).Conclusions:
Empagliflozin reduced BP and had favourable effects on markers of arterial stiffness and vascular resistance.