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Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a major complication of premature birth. Preventive strategies include preventing prematurity and closing a patent ductus arteriosus. A single course of antenatal glucocorticoids in women at risk of preterm delivery, and surfactant replacement therapy in infants with respiratory distress syndrome, may reduce the severity of BPD. In established disease, oxygen therapy, inhaled glucocorticoids and vaccination against respiratory pathogens may relieve symptoms and prevent exacerbations.