Treating diabetic ketoacidosis in children requires careful management of fluid, electrolytes and insulin

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Diabetic ketoacidosis is a common presenting manifestation of diabetes mellitus in children. Initial management includes fluid therapy, followed by intravenous administration of short- or ultrashort-acting insulin preparations and correction of total body potassium depletion. Fluid restriction plus mannitol or hypertonic saline are used to treat cerebral oedema, a rare but important complication of diabetic ketoacidosis

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