Delamanid: A Review of Its Use in Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

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Delamanid (Deltyba®), a nitroimidazo-oxazole derivative, is a new anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug which exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo antitubercular activity against drug-susceptible and -resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is approved in several countries, including Japan and those of the EU, for use as part of an appropriate combination regimen in adults with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) when an effective treatment regimen cannot otherwise be composed due to resistance or tolerability. In a robust phase II trial in adult patients with MDR-TB, oral delamanid 100 mg twice daily for 2 months plus an optimized background regimen improved sputum culture conversion rates to a significantly greater extent than placebo. In a 6-month extension study, long-term (≤8 months) treatment with delamanid was associated with a higher incidence of favourable outcomes (i.e. cured or completed all treatment) than short-term (≤2 months) treatment, with an accompanying reduction inunfavourable outcomes as defined by the WHO (i.e. pre-specified proportion of TB-positive sputum cultures, death or treatment discontinuation for ≥2 months without medical approval). Delamanid was not associated with clinically relevant drug-drug interactions, including with antiretroviral drugs and those commonly used in treating TB. Delamanid was generally well tolerated in patients with MDR-TB, with gastrointestinal adverse events and insomnia reported most commonly. Although the incidence of QT interval prolongation was higher with delamanid-based therapy, it was not associated with clinical symptoms such as syncope and arrhythmia. In conclusion, delamanid is a useful addition to the treatment options currently available for patients with MDR-TB.

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