Treatment with continuous oral estradiol plus sequential oral dydrogesterone is now available as a singletablet formulation for postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This form of HRT reduces the severity of climacteric symptoms, particularly hot flushes, night sweats and vaginal dryness. Additionally, it preserves bone density. The dydrogesterone component protects the endometrium, without negating the cardiovascular benefits of estradiol. However, vaginal bleeding commonly occurs with this form of HRT and may be undesirable to some women. Reasons for treatment withdrawal are similar to those of other forms of HRT.