Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is defined as four or more episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis occurring in a 12-month period. Underlying causal mechanisms can be identified in some patients (e.g. uncontrolled diabetes, repeated exposure to antibacterials), but no cause or precipitating factor can be identified for most women. Microbiological confirmation and identification of the causal species is important to distinguish from other conditions and to determine appropriate treatment. Most episodes of RVVC are caused byand can be treated with either systemic (e.g. fluconazole, itraconazole or ketoconazole) or topical (e.g. clotrimazole) azole antifungal agents. Maintenance antifungal suppressive regimens are highly effective at controlling symptoms, but a cure is less common.