Reimplantation of primary teeth has been the subject of various clinical and histological studies, but very little is known about the effect of this treatment on primary teeth. The aim of the present study was to histologically evaluate the biological response of dog primary teeth after immediate reimplantation. Twelve dogs were divided into two groups according to postoperative time: 1 week and 3 weeks. Twenty-one upper and lower intermediate incisors were extracted and submitted to endodontic treatment, reimplantation and splinting. The 21 homologous teeth not submitted to treatment served as controls. The animals were killed after the respective experimental periods, and the obtained specimens were processed for histological analysis. Most dogs of the 1-week group exhibited the following alterations: gingival epithelium was inserted in the cemento-enamel junction, with a small number of chronic inflammatory cells being observed in the gingival corium; the periodontal ligament was partially reestablished, with a more expressive chronic inflammatory infiltrate being observed in the apical third; small root resorption was observed on the palatine/lingual side in the apical third. In contrast, in 3-week animals, gingival epithelial insertion was predominantly absent on the buccal side, and a moderate chronic inflammatory infiltrate was present; the periodontal ligament generally showed no bone-cementum reinsertion especially on the palatine/lingual side, with an expressive inflammatory infiltrate in the apical region, and large root resorption was mainly observed on the palatine and lingual sides. In conclusion, reimplantation causes histological alterations in the tooth and its supporting periodontal structures that suggest the impossibility of its maintenance.