Human periodontal ligament cells reaction on a novel hydroxyapatite–collagen scaffold

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Abstract

Background

Periodontal tissue regeneration presents a highly promising method for restoring periodontal structures. The development of a suitable bioactive scaffold that promotes cell proliferation and differentiation is critical in periodontal tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a novel 3-dimensional hydroxyapatite–collagen scaffold with human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cell culture.

Methods

The scaffold was produced from a natural collagen matrix - purified porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM), which was then treated with hydroxyapatite (HA) through a biomimetic chemical process to obtain hydroxyapatite–porcine acellular dermal matrix (HA-PADM) scaffold. The hPDL cells were cultured with HA-PADM scaffolds for 1, 3, 6, 14, and 28 days. The cell viability assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopy were employed in different time points to evaluate the biocompatibility of the scaffolds with hPDL cells.

Results

The cell viability assay (WST-1 test) verified cell proliferation on the HA-PADM scaffolds. The SEM study showed unique morphology of hPDL cells, which attach and spread on the surface of the scaffolds. The H&E staining, immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopy demonstrated that hPDL cells were able to grow into the HA-PADM scaffolds and maintain viability after prolonged culture.

Conclusions

This study proved that HA-PADM scaffold is -biocompatible for hPDL cells. The cells were able to proliferate and migrate into the scaffold. These observations suggest that HA-PADM is a potential cell carrier for periodontal tissue regeneration.

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