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Pediatric traumatic dental injury is an important public health problem because of its high prevalence, severe physical or psychological impacts, and high prevention and treatment costs. This study aimed to determine the distributive features of pediatric traumatic dental injury in a university dental hospital in Xi'an, China.Children (aged 1 to 15 years) visiting the hospital from February 2011 to May 2012 as a result of dental trauma were investigated. Trauma-related information was recorded and analyzed.Most of the traumas occurred in children aged 7 to 12 years and affected the maxillary incisors. Of all the children involved, 17.2% had overjet. Concussion, enamel–dentin–pulp fracture, avulsion, and lateral luxation occurred more in the primary dentition (20.9%, 16.5%, 14.3%, and 13.2%, respectively). However, most traumas to the permanent dentition were enamel–dentin–pulp fractures and enamel–dentin fractures (33.7% and 29.1%, respectively). Most traumas were luxations (n = 156) in the 1- to 6-year-old group, while fractures were more common in the 7- to 12- and >13-year-old groups (n = 549, 84; P < 0.001). In total, 357 urban children had access to immediate medical care, whereas only 12 rural children were able to access a clinic within 24 h after injury (P < 0.001).Based on the information presented in this survey, the government should focus on medical development in rural settings and should attempt to balance the distribution of medical resources between urban and rural areas. Educational and preventive programs should also be promoted to enhance the guardians' awareness regarding pediatric traumatic dental injuries.