Choice of anti-hypertensive agents in diabetic subjects

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Hypertension is an extremely common co-morbid condition in diabetes leading to acceleration in micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. The use of anti-hypertensives in diabetic patients should be considered in the context of preventing the development of complications. Various factors contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetes in hypertension. With the advancements in technology, the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms has increased, and this can contribute in providing evidence for beneficial role of certain anti-hypertensives. Many clinical trials have been carried out for use of diuretics, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. The present review gives an overview of pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and diabetes in addition to the details of clinical trials of anti-hypertensives in diabetic patients. This is an attempt to provide some evidences for the clinicians, which may serve as a guide for use of anti-hypertensives in clinical practice.

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