Sodium glucose transporter type 2 inhibitors may reduce cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes. Our study aimed to determine the effect of the sodium glucose transporter type 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin on endothelial cell activation, vasoreactivity and atherogenesis using in vitro and in vivo models and identify associated molecular mechanisms.Methods:
In vitro studies utilised human vascular endothelial cells stimulated with tumour necrosis factor α or hyperglycaemic conditions. In vivo studies were performed in C57Bl/6J mice to evaluate direct vasorelaxation responses evoked by acute dapagliflozin administration and acute vaso-protective effects of dapagliflozin on hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. Adult and aged Apolipoprotein E–deficient mice maintained on a high-fat diet were used to investigate endothelial-dependent vascular reactivity and atherogenesis. Dapagliflozin treatment (1.0 mg/kg/day) was administered for 4 weeks.Results:
In vitro studies demonstrated dapagliflozin-mediated attenuation of tumour necrosis factor α- and hyperglycaemia-induced increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and NFκB expression. Acute dapagliflozin administration dose-dependently induced endothelium-independent vasorelaxation. Chronic dapagliflozin treatment improved endothelial function and significantly reduced in vivo vascular adhesion molecule and phospho-IκB expression together with macrophage vessel wall infiltration.Conclusion:
These observations identify a potential role for dapagliflozin in the attenuation of atherogenesis and identify anti-inflammatory molecular mechanisms associated with these effects.