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Hyperandrogenic state in females is accompanied with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and vascular pathologies. A total of 67%–85% of hyperandrogenic women suffer also from vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to check a potential interplay between hyperandrogenism and vitamin D deficiency in producing insulin resistance and effects on coronary resistance arteries. Adolescent female rats were divided into four groups, 11–12 animals in each. Transdermal testosterone-treated and vehicle-treated animals were kept either on vitamin D-deficient or on vitamin D-supplemented diet for 8 weeks. Plasma sexual steroid, insulin, leptin and vitamin D plasma levels were measured, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed. In coronary arterioles, insulin receptor and vitamin D receptor expressions were tested by immunohistochemistry, and insulin-induced relaxation was measured in vitro on isolated coronary resistance artery segments. Testosterone impaired glucose tolerance, and it diminished insulin relaxation but did not affect the expression of insulin and vitamin D receptors in vascular tissue. Vitamin D deficiency elevated postprandial insulin levels and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance. It also diminished insulin-induced coronary arteriole relaxation, while it raised the expression of vitamin D and insulin receptors in the endothelial and medial layers. Our conclusion is that both hyperandrogenism and vitamin D deficiency reduce sensitivity of coronary vascular tissue to insulin, but they do it with different mechanisms.