Efficacy and safety of the combination of isosorbide dinitrate spray and chitosan gel for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: A double-blind, randomized, clinical trial

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Abstract

Aim:

To evaluate whether a combination of isosorbide dinitrate spray and chitosan gel (10%) topically applied can have additive benefits for management of diabetic foot ulcers.

Methods:

In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial, 68 patients were divided into four groups: Group 1: treated with chitosan gel; Group 2: isosorbide dinitrate spray; Group 3: combination of isosorbide dinitrate spray and chitosan gel; Group 4: placebo.

Results:

Histological analyses showed a significant regeneration in all groups (p < 0.001). On the final assessment of the ulcer, using the combination was found a wound closure percentage of 71 ± 30, 70 ± 27 using isosorbide dinitrate, 58 ± 30 with chitosan and 50 ± 16 with placebo. The number of patients who achieved complete ulcer closure was six using the combination, four with isosorbide dinitrate, three with chitosan and one with placebo. The progression in the healing process of the ulcer showed marked inmunohistochemical differences of Von Willebrand Factor, desmin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A and α-smooth muscle actin in all groups (p < 0.001), but without notable differences between them.

Conclusion:

The combination was better than placebo to reduce the dimensions of the ulcer, accelerate healing and increase the number of patients who achieved complete closure of the ulcer, but the combination was not better than chitosan or isosorbide dinitrate used separately.

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