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To investigate the long-term prognostic value of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 in patients with acute myocardial infarction.Patients (n = 180) with admission glucose < 11 mmol/L without previously known diabetes admitted for an acute myocardial infarction in 1998–2000 were followed for mortality and cardiovascular events (first of cardiovascular mortality/acute myocardial infarction/stroke/severe heart failure) until the end of 2011 (median 11.6 years). Fasting levels of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 at day 2 were related to outcome in Cox proportional hazard regression analyses.Median age was 64 years, 69% were male and median insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 was 20 µg/L. Total mortality was 34% (n = 61) and 44% (n = 80) experienced a cardiovascular event during a median follow-up time of 11.6 years. After age adjustment, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 was associated with all-cause (1.40; 1.02–1.93, p = 0.039) and cancer mortality (2.09; 1.15–3.79, p = 0.015) but not with cardiovascular death (p = 0.29) or cardiovascular events (p = 0.57). After adjustments also for previous myocardial infarction, previous heart failure and body mass index, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 was still associated with all-cause mortality (1.38; 1.01–1.89, p = 0.046).In patients with acute myocardial infarction without previously known diabetes, high insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 was associated with long-term all-cause and cancer mortality but not with cardiovascular events.