|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Results from visual observations of the Leonid showers in 1998 and 1999 in Israel are presented. They were processed by the method which was developed at Engelhardt Astronomical Observatory (Kazan, Russia). The values of the mass index and the Zenithal hourly rate (ZHR) are estimated for both showers. The peak of the 1999 shower was over the Middle East and the conditions for observation were optimal. The calculated ZHR for 1999 Leonid shower was up to ZHR ∼ 3,700 based on 2-minute intervals, while the peak time was at solar longitude λo = 235.281 ± 0.001 (J2000), which corresponds to 1h57m ± 2m UT November 18. The shower width was 0.032 ± 0.002 ° solar longitude. The population index was higher during the storm of 1999 than in 1998.