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Fast photometric observations of target stars in the ecliptic are a powerful tool to detect small objects in the Kuiper Belt. The various parameters involved in such observations are described. Meter-sized telescopes are able to detect sub-kilometer KBO (Kuiper Belt Objects). A campaign of research of KBO by stellar occultations, organized at the Pic du Midi Observatory is presented. These observations bring the first constraint on the small end of the size distribution of the KBOs.