ANTILOGOPHORICITY, SYMPATHY AND THE SYMPATHETIC ANTILOGOPHOR RENJIA


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Abstract

The specific referential renjia ‘people-home’ cannot be analyzed simply as a contra-reference code in contrast with a co-reference code, namely, the Mandarin Chinese reflexive ziji ‘self’, as suggested in R. Cheng (1989, 1993). We believe that all the phenomena shown by the specific referential renjia ‘people-home’ fall under the notion of sympathetic antilogophoricity. That is, whenever the speaker attempts to appeal to the addressee's sympathy (or agreement) in his (or her) thoughts or feeling, he/she usually uses the specific referential renjia ‘people-home’ and has it take as reference some identifiable or unidentifiable external protagonist(s) other than the speaker or the addressee, or someone who plays a pragmatically downgraded logophoric role in the discourse, namely the downgraded speaker or addressee. Cases involving either a speaker-reference or an addressee-reference can be regarded as an extension of core sympathetic antilogophoricity, which is limited to cases of reference to an external protagonist other than the speaker or the addressee. Only in a non-core case of sympathetic antilogophoricity is it a necessary property of the sympathetic antilogophor renjia ‘people-home’ that its antecedent denotes an individual conscious of the relevant event being reported. The differences between the specific referential renjia ‘people-home’ and English epithets (i.e., antilogophors) lead to our claim: There exist at least two types of antilogophors and the notion of sympathy plays an important role in interpreting some type of antilogophors.

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