Reproduction, feeding and population structure were investigated in the mountain mullet, Agonostomus monticola, in eastern Jamaica between 1982 and 1986. Female fishes just outnumbered males 1.2: 1. Minimum size at maturity for females was 123 mm fork length (FL) and 96 mm FL for males. Mean size at maturity for females was 165.8 mm FL (S.D.=1.61) and for males was 148.4 mm FL (S.D.=2.97). Fecundity was 340 000 eggs for a 25 g ovary. Fecundity (F) was related to size by the equation F=153.8 FL1.36. Mean lengths of males and females captured by all methods were 129.4 mm (S.D.=5.56) and 160.4 mm FL (S.D.=0.70), respectively. A. monticola was found to be chiefly an insectivorous feeder. The major food items found in stomach contents in ranked sequence were insects, freshwater prawns, plant detritus and algae.