In adults with esophageal spasms, are noninvasive pharmacologic treatments superior to nonpharmacologic treatments?

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No controlled trials have been conducted involving nonpharmacologic treatments for esophageal spasm. Nifedipine reduces esophageal pressures but does not improve symptoms (SOR: C, 1 randomized crossover trial and 1 nonrandomized crossover trial). Diltiazem reduces esophageal pressures and has inconsistent effects on chest pain (SOR: C, 2 randomized crossover trials).

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