Are probiotics effective for the prevention of upper respiratory infections in children?

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It depends. Daily supplementation with at least 109 colony forming units (cfu) of either Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or L acidophilus reduces the frequency of upper respiratory infections and the symptoms of fever and cough. When combined with Bifidobacterium lactis, such supplementation also reduces the occurrence of rhinorrhea (SOR: B, RCTs in Croatia and China). Supplementation with Bifidobacterium alone does not appear to decrease the frequency of upper respiratory infections (SOR: B, single RCT in Finland).

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