Which aspects of a patient's history and physical are most useful in diagnosing giant cell arteritis (GCA)/temporal arteritis (TA)?

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Jaw claudication, diplopia, and temporal artery abnormalities such as tenderness, thickening, beading, and decreased/absent pulse appear to have the highest specificity (92%-96%) for temporal artery biopsy (TAB)-proven GCA/TA. However, the absence of any one common symptom does not rule out GCA/TA (SOR: A, systematic review of cross-sectional studies).

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